Prof. Kunio Ishikawa (Japan). Professor at Department of Biomaterials, Kyushu University, Japan Fields of Interest: Biomaterials for the Reconstruction and Regeneration of Bone Defect, Apatite, Calcium Phosphate, Self-setting Cement, Implant Materials. Education:Ph. D., Osaka University of Tokyo, 1990 Membership of Academic Societies: International Association for Dental Research, International Society for Ceramics in Medicine, Nano Biomedical Society, Japanese Society of Ceramics, Japanese Society for Dental Materials and Devices Awards & Honors: Award for Encouragement of Research, Japanese Society for Biomaterials, Japan (1999); Best Presentation Award, Asian BioCeramics (2003); Best Presentation Award, Japanese Society for Dental Materials and Devices (2005); IUMRS Encouragement Award, International Union of Materials Research Society (2008); Best Presentation Award, AUN/SEED-Net (2009).
Porous carbonate apatite as artificial bone replacements
It should be noted that bone apatite is not hydroxyapatite (HAp) but carbonate apatite (CO3Ap) that contains 6-9mass% of carbonate in its apatitic crystal structure. Although CO3Ap can not be sintered because it decompose at high temperature, CO3Ap block was found to be fabricated by a compositional transformation based on dissolution-precipitation reaction using suitable precursors . Human bone marrow cells (hBMCs) incubated on CO3Ap disk demonstrated a much higher expression of osteoblastic markers of differentiation than hBMCs incubated on sintered HAp disk . When osteoclasts were incubated on the surface of CO3Ap disk, osteoclastic resorption pits were observed, whereas no resorption pits were observed in the case of HAp disk. When bone defect was reconstructed with CO3Ap granules, CO3Ap granules were replaced to bone with time based on bone remodeling process whereas HAp granules kept it structure and were not replaced to bone. And CO3Ap showed much higher osteoconductivity than HAp. To facilitate the replacement of CO3Ap to bone, interconnected porous structure seems promising since osteoclasts and osteoblasts can penetrate interior to the porous CO3Ap. Porous CO3Ap was fabricated by various methods. Interconnected porous CO3Ap was fabricated by several methods including positive and negative polyurethane foam methods. Also, interconnected porous CO3Ap was fabricated by the compositional transformation of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) of the DCPD bonded CO3Ap granules. All interconnected porous CO3Ap showed excellent tissue response and good osteogenesis as well as the replacement of bone faster than dense CO3Ap block and better osteogenesis when compared to HAp regardless of the method of fabrication. For example, not only new bone but blood capillaries were found in the case of interconnected porous CO3Ap one month after implantation whereas not enough new bone and no blood capillaries were found in the case of interconnected porous HAp. Unfortunately, mechanical strength became lower with the introduction of interconnected pores. Further studies are awaited based on the results obtained for the dense and interconnected porous CO3Ap.
 Ishikawa K, Bone substitute fabrication based on dissolution-precipitation reaction, Materials. 3, (2010) 1138-1155.
Thomas J. Webster
Thomas J. Webster’s (H index 61 according to Google Scholar) degrees are in chemical engineering from the University of Pittsburgh (B.S., 1995) and in biomedical engineering from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (M.S., 1997; Ph.D., 2000). He is currently the Department Chair and Professor of Chemical Engineering at Northeastern University in Boston. His research explores the use of nanotechnology in numerous applications. Specifically, his research addresses the design, synthesis, and evaluation of nanophase materials (that is, materials with fundamental length scales less than 100 nm) as more effective biomedical devices. He has completed extensive studies on the use of nanophase materials to regenerate tissues and has graduated/supervised over 109 visiting faculty, clinical fellows, post-doctoral students, and thesis completing B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. students. To date, his lab group has generated over 9 textbooks, 48 book chapters, 306 invited presentations, at least 403 peer-reviewed literature articles, at least 567 conference presentations, and 32 provisional or full patents. Some of these patents led to the formation of 9 companies. His research on nanomedicine has received attention in recent media publications including MSNBC (October 10, 2005), NBC Nightly News (May 14, 2007), PBS DragonFly TV (covered across the US during the winter, 2008), ABC Nightly News via the Ivanhoe Medical Breakthrough Segment (covered across the US during the winters of 2008 and separate research segments in 2010 and 2011), Fox News (Dec. 18, 2013), and the Weather Channel (March 18, 2014). His work has been on display at the London and Boston Science Museums. He is the founding editor-in-chief of the International Journal of Nanomedicine (the first international journal in nanomedicine which in five years has achieved an impact factor of 4.97), serves on the editorial board of 15 additional journals, has helped to organize 22 conferences emphasizing nanotechnology in medicine, and has organized over 53 symposia at numerous conferences emphasizing biological interactions with nanomaterials. He also recently chaired the 2011 Annual Biomedical Engineering Society (BMES) Conference and has organized numerous symposia for AIChE, IEEE, MRS and ASME Annual Meetings. He has received numerous honors including, but not limited to: 2002, Biomedical Engineering Society Rita Schaffer Young Investigator Award; 2003, Outstanding Young Investigator Award Purdue University College of Engineering; 2005, American Association of Nanomedicine Young Investigator Award Finalist; 2005, Coulter Foundation Young Investigator Award; 2006, Fellow, American Association of Nanomedicine; 2010, Distinguished Lecturer in Nanomedicine, University of South Florida; 2011, Oustanding Leadership Award for the Biomedical Engineering Society (BMES); 2011, Fellow, American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering (AIMBE, representing the top 2% of all medical and biological engineers); 2013, Fellow, Biomedical Engineering Society; 2014, Fellow, Ernst Strugmann Foundation; and 2014, President-elect, US Society for Biomaterials.
Professor James C. Kirkpatrick
Prof. James C. Kirkpatrick (Germany) has a triple doctorate in science and medicine (MD, PhD, DSc) from the Queen‘s University of Belfast (N. Ireland) and since 1993 is Professor of Pathology and Chairman of the Institute of Pathology at the Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz, Germany. Previous academic appointments were in pathology at the University of Ulm (1980-1985), Manchester University, UK (1985-1987) and the RWTH Aachen (1987-1993). He is a Fellow of the Royal College of Pathologists (FRCPath), London (since 1997) and an Honorary Professor at the Peking Union Medical College in Beijing and the Sichuan University in Chengdu, China (both since 2004). C. James Kirkpatrick is author/coauthor of 430 publications in peer-reviewed journals, and more than 1200 presentations to scientific meetings worldwide. He is a former President of both the German Society for Biomaterials (2001-2005) and the European Society for Biomaterials (2002-2007), and from the latter he received in 2008 the George Winter Award for his contribution to biomaterials in Europe. In 2010 he was awarded the Chapman Medal from the Institute of Materials, Minerals & Mining, London, UK for ―distinguished research in the field of biomedical materials‖. He is Visiting Professor at the Nanyang Technological University (NTU) in Singapore since 2012, and in 2013 he was made Visiting Professor of Biomaterials & Regenerative Medicine at the Sahlgrenska Academy of the University of Gothenburg, Sweden. In 2014 he received the Career Achievement Award of TERMIS-EU.
Relevance of in vitro models for Regenerative Medicine
Although empiricism has always played an important role in medical research, experimental models are essential in a scientific approach to understanding physiological and pathological conditions, and thus in developing new therapies. Animal models possess the greatest complexity in such endeavours, but have their scientific and ethical limitations. Can in vitro models ever approach such complexity in a way which is meaningful for clinical translation? In this presentation a positive answer to this question is given, and will be illustrated by a variety of co-culture systems developed to study novel biomaterials for regeneration. The models include the following systems :
• models to study the vascularization of scaffolds for bone regeneration1-4
• models for the colonization of scaffolds for upper airway regeneration5-6
• models of the air-blood barrier for nanoparticle delivery7-10
• models of the blood-brain barrier for drug delivery to the central nervous system.11
More recent investigations are focussing on the role of inflammatory cells in regenerative processes and how they can be integrated into the established co-cuture systems. How macrophages of different phenotype influence the functional integrity of these co-cultures is of special interest, as the former cell type is practically ubiquitous in the body. It is intended that the data will support the hypothesis that in vitro techniques are indeed of relevance for Regenerative Medicine.
1. Kirkpatrick CJ et al. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2011; 63: 291-299
2. Unger RE et al. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2015; 94: 116-125
3. Dohle E et al. E Cells & Mater J 2014; 27:149-164
4. Kirkpatrick CJ. Tissue Engineering Part A 2014; 20: 1355-1357
5. Pohl C et al. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2009; 72: 339-349
6. Melo E et al. Tissue Engineering Part C Methods 2015; 21: 909-921
7. Hermanns MI et al. J R Soc Interface 2010; 7, S41-S54
8. Kasper J et al. Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2013; 84: 275-287
9. Kasper J et al. J Tissue Eng Regen Med 2015; doi: 10.1002/term.2032
10. Kasper J et al. Beilstein J Nanotechnol 2015; 6: 517-528
11. Freese C et al. PLoS One 2014; 9(3): e91003
Supported by the EU Institute of Excellence, EXPERTISSUES, and research grants from the German Research Foundation (DFG), BMBF/DAAD German-Chinese Cooperation in Regenerative Medicine and the German Defense Ministry (BMVg).
Prof. Franco Rustichelli, Polytechnical University of Marches, Ancona, Italy. Education: He studied at Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa and then at the University of Milano, where he got the degree in Physics in November 1962. In 1966 he got the degree of Specializzazione in Ingegneria Nucleare at the University of Bologna. In 1970 he got the “Libera Docenza” in Nuclear Reactor Physics. Experience: From 1962 to 1982 he was research physicist at EUROPEAN ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION, at Ispra Research Center. From 1968 to 1982 he carried out researches at the High Flux Reactor of the Institute LaueLangevin (Grenoble), France, by applying neutron scattering to Material Science and Biophysics. Since 1982 he is full Professor of Physics at the University of Ancona (Italy). He has developed a vast experience in fields like material science, biophysics, biomaterials and stem cells research. Editors: Co-editor and co-author of the Book: F.Rustichelli-J.Skrzypek (Editors), “Innovative Technological Materials – Structural Properties by Neutron Scattering, Synchrotron Radiation and Modelling” – Springer (2010) – ISBN 978-3-642-12058-9 Keynote and invited presentation: He presented several keynote and invited presentations at International Conferences, in particular RUSNANOFORUM (2008) and(2009) and especially in the in the fields of Nanotechnology and Stem Cells. Receipt of large-scale competitive fundings: He has taken part to more than 40 EU Projects, in some of them as coordinator or task coordinator, exploiting his experience in experimental investigations using small angle scattering (SANS/SAXS), X-ray synchrotron radiation microtomography and other techniques available at European Large Scale Facilities. Since June 2011 he is the European Coordinator of the COST Action MP1005 “From nano to macro biomaterials (design, processing, characterization, modeling) and applications to stem cells regenerative orthopaedic and dental medicine (NAMABIO)” and since March 2011 he is the European Coordinator of the EU project “Immersion in Scientific Worlds through Arts (ISWA). Current Research Activities: The current research activities are related to material science, biophysics, biomaterials and stem cells research. He published more than 290 papers on international journals in different fields. Since several years he is involved in researchers related to Regenerative Medicine in particular in the field of Bone Tissue Engineering, Muscular Dystrophy and more recently in Cardiology, by Synchrotron Radiation Techniques like X-Ray Computed Microtomography, X-Ray Holotomography (allowing visualization of blood vessels without using contrast agents).
Yannis obtained his Ph.D. in 1973 at Rice University in biomechanics of heart valves. Since then he followed an academic career at McMaster and Patras Universities doing research in cell biomechanics, tissue mechanics, cellmaterial interactions, dynamic hemocompatibility of biomaterials, protein mechanics , bacterial-surface dynamics and bioreactors for tissue engineering. Yannis served as member of the ESB Council, of the WCB, organized the 2013 ESB Congress, one week before his obligatory retirement from U. of Patras. He is a honorary member of both ESBs (biomechanics, biomaterials) and his current interests are in the area of mechanoepigenetics.
All the appropriate signals are necessary for engineering proper tissues: a prerequisite for successful tissue engineering
The highly interdisciplinary area of tissue engineering, by its nature, involves several fields of research from basic materials development to stem cell handling to clinical applications. While the need for quick applications is driven by necessity we are still far away from understanding how the hybrid system of material scaffolds-cellsbiomolecules operates optimally either in-vitro (in a bioreactor) or in-vivo.
In our effort to monitor some basic responses of particular cells to specific environments we have developed a bioreactor able to supply a multitude of mechanical cues, singly or in combination to endothelial cells. Examples of other bioreactors, suitable for bone or cartilage tissue engineering will also be presented.
Dr. Yasuhiko Tabata
Dr. Yasuhiko Tabata is the Professor and Chairman of the Department of Biomaterials at the Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University and a Professor of the Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, and a Professor of the School of Life Dentistry, Nippon Dental College, Japan and serves as visiting professors at Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry, Pharmaceutical Sciences, and Engineering of 14 different universities. He received his BD in Polymer Chemistry (1981), Ph.D. (1988) in Polymer Science, D.Med.Sci. (2002) in Regenerative Medicine, and D.Pharm. (2003) in Pharmaceutical Sciences all at Kyoto University. He was a Visiting Scientist at the MIT (Professor Robert Langer) (1991-92). He has published 1300 scientific papers including 120 book chapters and review articles, and has 140 patents. He received the Young Investigator Award (1990), the Scientific Award from the Japanese Society for Biomaterials (2002), the Scientific Award from the Japan Society of Drug Delivery System (2011), Chandra P. Sharma Award of the International Society of Biomaterials & Artificial Organs (2011), the Scientific Award from the Japanese Society for Regenerative Medicine (2014), and several awards. He is an associate member of the Science Council of Japan, Cabinet Office and the New York Academy of Science and a fellow of American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering (AIMBE) and American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering. Also, he was elected the Founding Fellow for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine (FTERM). Dr. Tabata is the Board Governor of the Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Society International, the Japanese Regenerative Medicine Society, the Japanese Society for Biomaterials, the Society for Hard Tissue Regenerative Medicine, the Japan Society of Drug Delivery System, and the Japanese Society of Inflammation and Regeneration or the Councilor of the Japanese Society of Wound Healing, the Japanese Artificial Organ Society, and the Editorial Board of Tissue Engineering, Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, Bioconjugate Chemistry, Journal of Biomaterial Sciences, Polymer Edition, and Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology. Dr. Tabata is a member of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine International Society and American Biomedical Engineering Society. He was the one of Founder Members of Asian Biomaterial Federation (ABF). He was a council member of Tissue Engineering Society International for 2001-2003 and 2012-present. His research is very interdisciplinary in nature and brings together the fields of polymer chemistry, pharmaceutical science, biology, and basic and clinical medicines. His research focuses on the design and preparation of biodegradable or non- biodegradable biomaterials for their biological, medical, and pharmaceutical applications, while the keywords are biomaterials, drug delivery system (DDS), tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, stem cell technology, and medical diagnostics.
Biomaterials Technology Indispensable for Regenerative Medicine
As the third choice of advanced medical therapy following reconstruction surgery and organ transplantation, a new therapeutic trial based on the natural self-healing potential of body itself to induce tissues regeneration and repairing, has been recently expected. The healing potential is physiologically based on the ability of cells for proliferation and differentiation. To realize this tissue regeneration therapy, there are two practical approaches; cell therapy and tissue engineering. The cells with a high ability are transplanted into the tissue site to be regenerated, and tissue regeneration by cells transplanted is expected to achieve the site. The idea of tissue engineering is to artificially create a local environment for enhancement of cells proliferation and differentiation abilities, resulting in cell-induced tissue regeneration, by making use of biomaterials technology. The tissue engineering is one newly emerging field of biomaterials. For examples, biomaterials are being used as the cell scaffold and delivery carrier of biosignaling molecules (growth factor and gene). If a key growth factor is supplied to the right place at the right time period and concentration, it is no doubt that the body system will initiate to physiologically function, resulting in the natural induction of tissue regeneration. One practically possible way to enhance the in vivo therapeutic efficacy of growth factor with in vivo short half-life period is to make use of drug delivery system (DDS) technology.
We have explored biodegradable hydrogels for the controlled release of various growth factors and succeeded in the growth factor-induced regeneration and repairing of different tissues. Some tissue regeneration trials with biomaterials have been clinically started to demonstrate the good therapeutic efficacy. The release system can be combined with cells or/and the cell scaffold to promote the therapeutic efficacy of tissue regeneration. Combination with the biomaterials technology also enhances the therapeutic efficacy of cell transplantation. On the other hand, the hydrogel system is also applicable for the dual release of chemokine and growth factor in different time profiles. For example, a chemokine is release to enhance the in vivo recruitment of stem cells to a target site to be regenerated, followed by the release of growth factor to activate the cells recruited thereat, resulting in an enhanced cell-based tissue regeneration. In addition, the biomaterial technology is applicable to regenerative researches (the basic research of stem cells and drug discovery) which can scientifically support the regenerative therapy of next generation.
In this paper, several concrete examples of regenerative medicine with the cell scaffold and DDS-based regeneration are presented to emphasize scientific and clinical significance of biomaterials technology in regeneration therapy and regeneration research.
1) Yasuhiko Tabata, Significance of release technology in tissue engineering. Drug Delivery Today, 23/24, 1639-1646 (2005)
2) Masaya Yamamoto and Yasuhiko Tabata, Tissue engineering by modulated gene delivery. Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews, 58, 535-554 (2006)
3) Yasuhiko Tabata. Current status of regenerative medical therapy based on drug delivery. Reproductive BioMedicine Online. 16, 70-80 (2008)
4) Yasuhiko Tabata Biomaterial technology for Tissue Engineering applications. Journal Royal Society. Interface 6, S311-S324 (2009)
5) Yasuhiko Tabata Biomaterials Design of Culture Substrates for Cell Research Inflammation and Regeneration 31, 137-145 (2011)
Dr. Gilson Khang was born in 1960 in South Korea, where he obtained his degrees at the Inha Univ (B.S. and M.S.). In 1987, he joined the Dr Hai Bang Lee’s Biomaterials Lab at KRICT (Deajeon, Korea). He was studying for Ph.D. degree at the Department of Biomedical Engineering, The Univ of Iowa (Iowa City, IA, USA) from 1991~1995 under the guidance of Prof Joon B. Park. His academic career started at the Department of PolymerNano Science and Technology at Chonbuk National University (CBNU) and then tenured by Full Professor in 2009. From 2006 to 2011, he was the PI of BK-21 (Brain Korea 21 Project) and WCU (World Class University, 3MUD/yr for 5 years) Program at CBNU supported by KMEST. He was Chair Professor in the Department of BIN Fusion Technology of WCU program of CBNU. Dr. Khang was the one of Founder Members of Asian Tissue Engineering Society (ATES) and one of Founder Members of TERMIS-AP Chapter. Prof. Khang was General Secretary and Treasurer for 2005~2009 of TERMIS-AP Chapter and now served as a council member for TERMIS-AP. Recently, he serves TERMIS-AP Continental Chair as 2015~2017, TERMIS Global President-Elect (2016~2108) & executive board member for TERMIS Global. He has co-authored or edited ~30 books. He has published ~600 original research papers, and ~200 editorials, reviews or chapters in books. His papers were cited 5,520 times. (h-index >38) His major scientific contribution has been to appreciate and analyze the importance of natural/synthetic hybrid scaffold to reduce the host inflammation reaction as well as the commercialization for tissue engineered products as cartilage, bone, retinal pigment epithelium, cornea endothelium, etc. His international collaboration network is really worldwide and tight over 7 countries and 15 Universities. He is engaging the Visiting Professor of Tsinghua Univ, Peking Univ, Zhejiang Univ, China and Wake Forest Institute of Regenerative Medicine, USA.
Scaffold Design for Regenerative Medicine: Biocompatibility Issues
Implanted biomaterials and drug delivery vehicles have been reported to induce sequential events of immunologic reactions in response to injury caused by implantation procedures and result in acute inflammation marked by a dense infiltration of inflammation‐mediating cells at the materials‐tissue interface.
Poly(lactide-co-glycolide)(PLGA) is a member of a group of poly(α‐hydroxy acid) that is among the few synthetic polymers approved for human clinical use by FDA. Consequently, it has been extensively used and tested for scaffold materials as a bioerodible material due to good biocompatibility, relatively good mechanical property, lower toxicity and controllable biodegradability. PLGA degrades by nonspecific hydrolytic scission of their ester bonds into their original monomer, lactic acid and glycolic acid. During these processes, there is very minimal systemic toxicity, however, in some cases, their acidic degradation products can decrease the pH in the surrounding tissue that result in local inflammatory reaction and potentially poor tissue development.
Currently, biomaterials are endowed with biocompatibility through three different methods which are: coating with hydrophilic molecules, modifying surface characteristics using physiochemical methods and impregnating bioactive substances. In our laboratory, the natural/synthetic nano-hybrid scaffolds have been investigated such as small intestine submucosa (SIS), demineralized bone particles (DBP), DBP gel, fibrin, keratin, hyaluronic acid, collagen gel, silk and a 2‐methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) polymer (PMEH) with PLGA to reduce cellular inflammatory response. In this lecture, we introduced synthetic/natural nanohybrid as DBP/PLGA and SIS/PLGA scaffold in terms of scaffold design for the reduction of host response and the augmentation of tissue formation. This information will be supporting the basic strategy for the scaffold design with better improved biocompatibility.
Invited Plenary Speakers
Assoc. Prof. Dr Olivera Lupescu, MD, PhD, Consultant Orthopedic Surgeon, has been working in the Orthopedic and Trauma Clinic of Bucharest Clinical Emergency Hospital since 1989. Since 1991 she also teaches at the University of Medicine and Pharmacy Bucharest “Carol Davila” Bucharest, now Assoc Prof. being involved in educational activities addressed to students, as well as to residents and young specialists. As a surgeon, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Lupescu approached a wide spectrum of orthopedic and trauma pathology, with a special interest in complex trauma, open fractures, mangled extremity, bone infections, as well as polytrauma and damage control . As member of the research team of the Clinic, she has been involved for almost 10 years in national research grants as well as in international clinical trials studying modern aspects of orthopedic practice, such as substances enhancing bone healing, or novel thromboprophylactic molecules , all these completing the observational research activity based on the numerous clinical cases operated in the Clinic. The most significant aspects derived from this sustained practice were published or presented in more than 100 papers accepted in national and international medical conferences. Assoc. Prof. Dr. Lupescu authored and co-authored articles and books reflecting the interest for challenging issues in orthopedic surgery, including biomaterials, endoprosthesis, bone substitutes, as these represent current methods used by the team she works with. She has been invited speaker in national and international congresses, especially in the field of orthopedic trauma, and, as AO Faculty, in basic and advanced courses of this prestigious orthopedic organization. As member of several orthopedic associations, Assoc. Prof.Dr. Lupescu is focused on making more visible the experience of Romanian orthopedists, as well as on stimulating the young trainees to improve their knowledge according to the international guidelines and standards.
Bone graft substitutes in post-traumatic bone defects.
Modern traumatology faces the challenge of increasingly severe injuries due to high energy traumatic agents, and affecting mainly young people; not only that they increase mortality, but they also result in debilitating complications, diminishing the work capacity of the patients, requiring long and complicate treatments and increasing the social costs of these trauma.
One of the most frequent and severe, as well, complication is represented by post-traumatic bone defects, which may result form different circumstancies: primary immediate post-traumatic or secondry post- necrotic bone loss, bone defects after corrective surgery or after sequestrectomy, all these have a common element: the need for bone grafting, which must be properly understood as the process of rectoring the bone continuity AND properties, of re-creating bone able to sustain physiological forces, as the normal boen does.
Regardless of its indication, bone grafting needs certain conditions for successful integration, similar to those necessary for bone healing, described by the “ diamond concept” introduced by P. Giannoudis. Only when these conditions are created, the osteogenetic, osteoconductive and osteointegrating properties of bone grafts become active, otherwise the graft will not integrate.
The problem of bone defects has particular features in trauma, since usually not only the bone is involved, but the soft tissues as well, thus requiring substitutes with increased bio-compatibility, especially that trauma produces not only the bone defect, but affects the host reaction as well.
Due to the different functions of the skeletal segments, bone graft must fulfill particular requirements ;regarding mechanical resistance, resorbtion speed, delivery properties, or other characteristics, thus indicating that the “ ideal bone substitute” is far from being discovered, demonstrating the need for multidisciplinary research.
Dr. Simeon Agathopoulos
Dr. Simeon Agathopoulos (50) is Associate Professor of Ceramics Technology in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering in the University of Ioannina, in Greece, and member of the Laboratory of Ceramics and Composite Materials (CCL). He has Diploma in Chemistry (1988) and Ph.D. of Chemical Engineering on Bioceramics (1994) both from the University of Patras, Greece. He had being working as Post-Doctoral Researcher in the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission in the Netherlands (1994-1996), with a Marie Currie individual fellowship, in the Department of Ceramics and Glass Engineering in the University of Aveiro in Portugal (1999-2006), and in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering in the University of Ioannina in Greece (2006-2008), also with a fellowship of the European Commission. He was elected Assistant Professor in 2008 and Associate Professor in 2012. His scientific performance is briefly outlined in more than 180 scientific articles in international journals and more than 250 presentations in international and national scientific conferences and lectures, which have been cited more than 2.200 times (h-index = 26). He is reviewer of more than 35 scientific journals and member of many scientific societies (international and national) of ceramics and biomaterials. He was president and currently is secretary of the Greek Society of Biomechanics. In May 2015 he was elected president of the International Scientific Committee of the High Temperature Capillarity. He is member of many international and national scientific societies as well as scientific committees and organizing committees in several conferences. He has organized the 6th international conference on High Temperature Capillarity “HTC-2009” (Athens, May 2009), the 4th national conference of the Greek Society of Biomechanics (Ioannina, June 2010) and many scientific meetings, workshops and sessions in the University of Ioannina. Moreover, he will actively participate in the forthcoming international conferences EuroMat and ESB-2017, which will be held in Greece in September 2017. His research focuses on bioceramics of all types (calcium phosphates, alumina-zirconia-titania-silica, glasses and glass-ceramics), in all forms (bulk, porous, composites and coatings), and at all stages (production, characterization, application). He has produced novel biomaterials, specifically hydrothermally transformed shells and cuttlefish-bones, mica-based glass-ceramics, and novel lithium disilicates, produced with no nucleating agents. Now, he is developing novel hydrogel-ceramic composites for potential use in orthopaedic applications as well as for drug delivery and tissue engineering constructs for remodeling damaged tissues of myocardium after heart infarction, and novel protocols for preparing strong interfaces between dentin and ceramics (e.g. Empress and Imax) in dental applications. He supervises 5 Ph.D. students and the Theses of many Masters and undergraduate students. He is the Erasmus departmental coordinator in his department.
Novel biodegradable alginate based scaffolds for application in myocardial tissue engineering
Myocardial infarction constitutes an important health related problem worldwide. During the past decade, experimental studies, using cell-based therapies and growth factor administration integrated in biomaterial scaffolds, have demonstrated the potential to reduce the infarcted area and to improve regional and global left ventricular function . Tissue engineering approaches are vastly considered for medical treatment after an infarction and perhaps even to regenerate the damaged tissues of myocardium. Numerous highly porous scaffolds of synthetic biodegradable polymers, such as alginate hydrogels, have been proposed . Experimentally, treatment with growth hormone (GH) is beneficial, but sustained local administration has not been thoroughly investigated [3, 4]. In this study , we synthesized a porous, cell-interactive and biodegradable alginate hydrogel for the delivery of growth hormone and cell cultures into the infarcted myocardium. Specifically, we fabricated (A) an alginate-based biomaterial-scaffold with covalent grafted of growth hormone and G4RGDSP peptide and (B) an alginate-based biomaterial-scaffold with covalent grafting of G4RGDSP seeded with human adipose tissue (hAT)-derived MSCs and umbilical-vein endothelial cells (HUVECs); important features of this tissue-engineering construct (TEC). Furthermore, the mixture of high- and low-molecular weight alginate in the scaffold provides dynamic viscosity suitable for smooth delivery, coupled with optimal gelation-properties (viscosity measurments and DFT theoretical calculations). Both the (A) and (B) scaffolds were evaluated for their angiogenetic prospective. Also, we evaluated the medium-term electrophysiologic sequelae of the implanted-TECs in the rat MI-model
 S. Agathopoulos and T.M. Kolettis, Novel strategies for cardiac repair post-myocardial infarction. Curr. Pharm. Des. 20 (2014) 1925-1929.
 T.M. Kolettis, A. Vilaeti, K. Dimos, N. Tsitou and S. Agathopoulos, Tissue engineering for post-myocardial infarction ventricular remodeling, Mini Rev. Med. Chem. 11 (2011) 263-270.
 E.P. Daskalopoulos, A.D. Vilaeti, E. Barka, P. Mantzouratou, D. Kouroupis, M. Kontonika, C. Tourmousoglou, A. Papalois, C. Pantos, W.M. Blankesteijn, S. Agathopoulos and Th.M. Kolettis, Attenuation of post-infarction remodeling in rats by sustained myocardial growth hormone administration. Growth Factors 33 (2015) 250-258.
 M. Kontonika, E. Barka, E.P. Daskalopoulos, A.D. Vilaeti, A. Papalois, S. Agathopoulos and Th.M. Kolettis, Effects of myocardial alginate injections on ventricular arrhythmias after experimental ischemia-reperfusion, Trends Biomater Artif Organs 28 (2014) 79-82.
Fabrizio Barberis Is Assistant Professor at University of Genoa (UNIGE), Italy, where teaches Material Science and Composite Materials at the Engineering and at the Physics Faculties. He is member of the Board of Chemical Eng. and Biomedical Eng. Ph.D Schools. The Research activity is strongly focussed over mechanical and functional characterization both of biological (soft and stiff) tissues and of biomaterials used in prosthetic and tissue engineering applications. Artificial materials adopted for scaffolds preparation and 3D printed devices are also studied both with static and dynamic testing techniques He spent some years in the board of the European Society for Biomaterials – YSF while he has been affiliated to CNR – National Research Council. He’s head of the “UNIGE-Zwick/Roell integrated material lab” and delegate on behalf of University of Genoa to “Alliance for Materials-A4M” at Instruction and Research Ministry-MIUR. He’ is secretary of TC113 (Nanotechnologies for Systems and Electronics Products) of the Italian Electrotechnical Committee – CEI and referee for Research Foundation Flanders (FWO). On the technology transfer side he is member of the Unige Patent and Spin Off Committee as like Panellist for Spin Off scouting for International and Italian Venture Capital bodies and Banks. He is deputy director of the School of Science Management for Scientists and Engineers (Sosmse-Unige) and member of the International Master in Advanced Materials (SerpChem), while he has been board member and teacher in several masters on technology transfer held by UNIGE with external partners.
Investigating mechanical properties of animal menisci
A classical treatment in case of meniscus tear, which is a common knee joint injury, consists in partial or total meniscectomy. As a consequence, an increased probability of osteoarthritic modification in the tibiofemoral joint cartilages is well assessed. This problem invests a large number of people all over the world, with huge health and economical rebounds. Meniscus prostheses or substitutes in artificial materials could allow to restore full functionality of the knee while avoiding or reducing the risk of OA. The main difficulty in designing a synthetic tissue capable of emulating the response of natural meniscus to mechanical loading is the extreme structural complexity of the natural tissue itself, which corresponds to multigraded and highly differentiated mechanical properties showing poroelastic, viscoelastic and hyperelastic behaviours. Moreover the general properties are temperature and hydration sensible . Thus, to deeply investigate meniscus properties, in this work dynamic mechanical tests at different degree of swelling for immersion in PBS were performed taking in account that tissue degradation occurs in very short time at ambient and at natural body temperature.
Dynamic and static test were also performed in compression over cylindrical samples extracted from different regions of both bovine and porcine tissues and indentation by dynamic test were carried out on radial cross sections.
The obtained preliminary results show a tight interconnection among the contribution of poroelastic and hyperelastic features, strongly correlated to the test speed and to the experimental techniques adopted to collect tissue samples.
Maria-Pau Ginebra leads the Biomaterials, Biomechanics and Tissue Engineering Group at the Technical University of Catalonia in Barcelona, Spain. Her research interests include the design and development of new biomaterials for bone regeneration, bone tissue engineering and drug delivery. Her research team has made significant contributions in the processing and characterisation of a new generation of low-temperature calcium phosphates which mimic bone extracellular matrix, including calcium phosphate cements and foams, incorporating synthetic or natural polymers, and/or biologically active molecules. She is involved also in new biofabrication strategies, including injectable scaffolds for bone tissue engineering, bioinspired substrates and 3D printing of regenerative medical implants. She has been involved in numerous national and European research projects and participated in the organisation of scientific events in the area of biomaterials and bioceramics. She is author of more than 150 articles in peer-reviewed International journals as well as of 9 patents. In 2013 she founded the spin-off company Subtilis Biomaterials. She has received numerous awards, amongst them the Racquel LeGeros Award, for her contribution to calcium phosphate research, in 2013.
Processing, properties and benefits of biomimetic nanostructured calcium phosphates
Large bone defects pose a great clinical and socioeconomic challenge. In these situations it is necessary to induce bone formation beyond the capacity of the host tissue. The development of synthetic materials is a promising strategy that overcomes some limitations associated with bone autografts or allografts. Mimicking the extracellular matrix of bone tissue is a good approach, which has led to the development of a wide range of calcium phosphates that are used in the clinic, from high-temperature sintered calcium phosphates to biomimetic nanoapatites. Biomimetic calcium phosphates can be obtained at low-temperature through self-setting reactions after mixing a solid phase with a liquid phase. The setting reaction allows obtaining compounds with morphologies and compositions very similar to the calcium phosphates found in the mineralized tissues. The entangled network of crystals that are formed generates porous structures with nano/micro porosities and high specific surface area. These materials are injectable, which makes them very attractive not only for minimally invasive surgery, but also for additive manufacturing techniques. Moreover, we have shown that nanostructured calcium phosphates have superior osteoinductive capacity. This opens up new possibilities in the design of customized osteoinductive bone substitutes.
Florin Miculescu is Full Professor in the Metallic Materials Science and Physical Metallurgy Department at the Politehnica University from Bucharest, Chief of the Electron Microscopy & Microanalysis and Materials Analysis & Characterisation Methods Laboratories within his department and President of the Romanian Society for Biomaterials (SRB). He received his PhD degree in Materials Engineering in 2006 and the Habilitation title in 2014, at Politehnica University from Bucharest. He has participated in five postdoctoral stages in Europe and USA and applied his expertise in various research projects related to materials science, engineering, and technology (manager of 6 national and over 50 projects for private companies in the last 15 years). His research activities in the fields of biomaterials, nanomaterials and materials characterization are also presented in over 70 peer-reviewed research articles, 5 books and 6 book chapters. He constantly supervises a heterogeneous team of PhD, MSc and BSc students and he is teaching materials science & engineering, biomaterials characterization methods and electron microscopy & microanalysis courses.
Thermal processing routes for tunable calcium phosphates derived from bovine bone
This presentation summarizes the author’s research from the last 10 years regarding the preparation of tunable calcium phosphates through thermal processing of different types of bovine bone. Bovine bone-derived hydroxyapatite is considered and ecological and economical alternative to synthetic hydroxyapatite, with favourable sintering outcomes. The material is initially obtained after thermal treatments for removal of the bone’s organic component, while preserving the mineral component’s porous morphology.
The information is centred on the variation of heat treatments parameters (temperature, environment and cooling conditions) and sintering strategies, and their effects upon the elemental and phase composition, morphology, structure, mechanical properties and thermal stability of the produced ceramics. Starting with precursors’ selection, after material characterization and implantation studies, and up to powder processing for solid freeform fabrication, the presentation will outline the major achievements and challenges in thermal processing of bovine bone for its use in bone replacement products.
The presentation was supported by a grant of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research and Innovation, CNCS – UEFISCDI, project number PN-II-RU-TE-2014-4-0590
Julietta V. Rau
Julietta V. Rau is the Researcher and the Head of the Laboratory and Group at the Institute of the Structure of Matter of the Italian National Research Council (Rome, Italy). She is the author of more than 110 publications in International Journals and about 130 presentations at International Conferences. Dr. Rau received several international awards for her research achievements. She is the Member of the International Scientific Committee of various International Conferences in the field of Materials Science, Nanoscience, Biomaterials and Medical devices and Organizer and Co-Chair of the biennial BioMaH “Biomaterials for Healthcare” International Biomaterials Conference. She is the Member of the Editorial Board of the Bioactive Materials journal and the Member of the FRONTIES Editorial Board: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine. She is the Lead Guest Editor of the Special Issue «Bioactive Ceramic and Glass Systems for Bone Tissue Engineering» in BioMed Research International journal and the Guest Editor of the Special Issue “Exploring Challenges Ahead of Nanotechnology for Biomedicine” in Bioactive Materials journal. Her present research interests regard biomaterials for regenerative medicine, and namely calcium phosphates and glass-ceramics based materials for tissue engineering applications. Her recent publications are dedicated to bioactive nanostructured coatings of innovative composition for orthopaedic and dental implant applications and biocements for bones, cranial-facial surgery and odontoiatric applications. She is also involved in research projects dedicated to Raman spectroscopy application and novel imaging approaches for cancer diagnostics.
Professor Yurii Sharkeev
Professor Yurii Sharkeev has completed his PhD at the age of 33 years from Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building (Tomsk, Russia) and DSci at the age of 50 years from Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science of SB RAS (ISPMS of SB RAS, Tomsk, Russia). He is Head of Lab. on Physics of Nanostructured Biocomposites of ISPMS of SB RAS and Professor of National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University (Russia). His research interests focus on physics of strength and plasticity of metals, alloys and steels, physics of interaction of charged particles and plasma fluxes with metals and alloys, severe plastic deformation, structures and properties of biocomposites on the base of bioinert nanostuctured metals and alloys and CaP bioactive coatings, additive technologies, bioengineering, medical implants design. He has published 300 papers in scientific journals and books.
Selective Laser 3D-Printing of Low Elastic Modules Ti-Nb Alloy for Medical Applications
Bioinert low elastic modulus alloys of the Ti-Nb system have a special place among the alloys for medical applications . The low modulus of elasticity and bioinert properties determine their application as materials for medical implants [1, 2]. The use of additive technologies, for example, the selective laser melting (SLM) method in the 3D-printing mode, is often the unique alternative to the conventional methods of producing parts and items having complex shapes by molding. The development of the SLM method is especially perspective in medical implants production. Furthermore, this method allows producing implants with preset porosity, which is rather important for better osteointegration of the implant material with the bone tissue. The development of the SLM method and study of the structure and phase formation processes are important tasks. Features of structure and element and phase compositions formation of the low elastic modulus Ti-(40-45) wt.%Nb alloy obtained by SLM are investigated.
Composite powder of Ti and Nb was used to produce the monolayer and multilayer Ti-Nb alloy samples by SLM method. The composite Ti-Nb powder was produced using the mechanical activation method from pure titanium and niobium powders in the planetary ball mill AGO-2. Searching experiments to determine the process conditions of synthesizing monolayer and multilayer were carried out by experimental additive manufacturing facility «VARISKAF-100МВ».
Average content of Nb in the alloy varies within the range of 36–42 wt.%. The monolayer has a gradient composition with structure varying from fine-grained state to medium-grained state. The Ti-Nb alloy samples has a two-phase state, namely the base phase of -bcc-solid solution of Ti and Nb with grain sizes of 5–7 µm and non-equilibrium martensite -phase with grain sizes of 0.1–0.7 µm, locally distributed along the grain boundaries of the -phase.
The work has been financially supported by the Russian Science Foundation, grant No. 15-19-00191.
 M. Niinomi, M. Nakai and J. Hieda, Acta Biomaterialia, 8, (2012) 3888–3903.
 M.A.-H. Ceepreel and M. Niinomi, J. Mech. Behavior Biomed. Mater., 20, (2013) 407–415.
Dr. Stancu Izabela-Cristina is Professor and she teaches Polymer Biomaterials and Polymer Physics to undergraduate and MSc students at the Faculty of Applied Chemistry and Materials Science and at the Faculty of Medical Engineering (University Politehnica Bucharest). Dr. Stancu leads a research team within the Advanced Polymer Materials Group (APMG – http://www.tsocm.pub.ro/APMG) headed by Prof. Horia Iovu at University Politehnica Bucharest (Romania). The scientific interests include the understanding and the development of bio-inspired polymer-based biomaterials for tissue regeneration, bioadhesion and biomineralization, using a combination of natural and synthetic macromolecules, biofunctionalization methods and nano-structuring strategies. The main aim is to control the architecture, the hierarchical organization, the biomechanical strength and the physico-mechanical properties of the developed scaffolds. Dr. Stancu has published over 45 publications, including 4 books and 3 book chapters and she has coordinated 5 research grants. Dr. Stancu is Secretary of the Young Scientists Forum (YSF) at The European Society of Biomaterials (ESB)(http://www.esbiomaterials.eu/index.php?cid=YSF), member of the European Doctoral Award Committee at ESB (http://www.esbiomaterials.eu/index.php?cid=Education&op=11), Vicepresident of the Romanian Society for Biomaterials and co-founder of the YSF Romanian chapter.
Biointeractions of Nanodiamond Particles Loaded in Electrospun Fish Gelatin Fibrous Scaffolds
The development of new scaffolds with ECM-inspired features for tissue regeneration by nanotechnology and biomimetics is appealing but still underexploited. In this work carboxylated nanodiamond particles (NDPs) have been immobilized into electrospun fish gelatin hydrogel fibers to fabricate nanocomposite fibrous scaffolds with interconnected pores. No significant modification of the mineralization capacity in acellular simulated fluids has been noticed by micro-structural and spectroscopic investigations, for fibers with nanoparticles loading ranging from 0.25% to 6%, in comparison to fish gelatin fibers. Ca/P alternate incubation of the fibers was followed by formation of nano-apatite crystals preferentially developed and firmly adhered in the proximity of the agglomerations of nanodiamonds, as indicated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The ability of NDPs–loaded hydrogel-based fibers to promote biomineralisation and eventually enhance cell interactions was investigated using human mesenchymal stem cells and MG63 osteoblasts-like cells.
Ika Dewi Ana
Dr. Ika Dewi Ana is a dentist by training, graduated from Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM), Yogyakarta, Indonesia in 1993. She continued her study in Clinical Epidemiology at The Graduate School of Medicine, UGM and got her PhD in Dental Sciences from Kyushu University, Japan, in 2004. She is an associate professor at The Faculty of Dentistry, UGM. Her area of interest is bioceramics, tissue engineering, and regenerative medical therapy. The important path in her scientific career is her study under the supervision of Professor Kunio Ishikawa (Kyushu University) at that time she was awarded the most outstanding research presentation from Asian BioCeramics Society in 2003. She then got UGM Award for the most innovative research in 2004 and 2011. She continued her scientific works as a research fellow of JSPS (Japan Society for The Promotion of Science) in 2005-2007, a postdoctoral research fellow of KNAW (The Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences) to run postdoctoral research collaboration by joining Professor John A. Jansen`s research group with Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen Medical Center, The Netherlands in 2007-2009, and a visiting researcher at the Institute for Frontier Medical Sciences, Kyoto University, Japan by joining Professor Yasuhiko Tabata`s group. Two of her research works have been already translated into the market in Indonesia by a university holding company and state-owned pharmaceutical company in Indonesia (CHA Bone Graft). Meanwhile, 2 others have been being in the process of translation (hemostatic sponge and metronidazole strip) by a biggest pharmaceutical company in South East Asia. In 2014, JICA-AUN/SEED-Net (JICA- ASEAN University Network for South East Asian Engineering Education Development) chose her project as the most outstanding CRI (Collaborative Research with Industry) Research to go into commercialization and being disseminated as a model for ASEAN countries under JICA-AUN/SEED-Net. In December 16, 2014, she received Outstanding Intellectual Property Award from The Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education of The Republic of Indonesia. She is also The 27th President of The International Society for Ceramics in Medicine (ISCM). She was chosen by DAAD (German Academic Exchange Services), HRK (German Rector Conference), and AvH (Alexander von Humboldt) to represent South East Asian scholars as a fellow for International Deans Course in 2008 and a fellow for ASEAN Quality Assurance System in 2012. She was also involved in the module development and dissemination programs for strengthening University-Industry Partnership in Asia-Pacific region, under the management of UNESCO. She managed domestic, international, alumni and industrial collaborations in her position as Director of Partnership, Alumni and Global Initiatives of UGM (2012-2014). Since 2015, she is the Director of Center for Academic Innovation and Policy in UGM, and responsible in developing academic innovation and academic policy in the university. She is also mandatory assigned by the university to be the commissioner and member of technology valuation board of UGM Start Up Company for Drug and Medical Devices, which in 2014 translated 8 medical products and medical technologies into the market in Indonesia.
Roles of Calcium Concentration on the Loading Percentage of Various Growth Factors into The Scaffold Construct
Background: Calcium plays an important role in regeneration of both hard and soft tissues. It was also known from the previous report that calcium signalling are necessary component of the epidermal to migrate and response to wounding. In view of this, it was considered that a gelatin composite containing a certain amount of calcium is important for regenerative dentistry. The aim of the study was to evaluate physical properties and loading percentage of VEGF in the composite constructed with various ceramics used in biomedical application towards bone regeneration.
Methods: The subjects of this study were gelatin-DCPD (GDCPD), gelatin-CHA (GCHA) and gelatin-CaCO3 (GCCO) membranes which were contacted with 100 L of activated PRP. The membranes were fabricated through freeze drying and dehydrothermal treatment method with 2 different compositions, 6:4 and 7:3. There were 10 samples of membrane for each compositions. Human PRP was made with 2 steps centrifugation and activated with CaCl2 2%. In the activated PRP, VEGF will be released from platelet. The activated PRP was contacted with gelatin-DCPD membrane for 1 hour in 37C then the membrane was soaked in 500 L PBS for 3 hours in 37C. The value of VEGF before and after contact with membrane was measured using human VEGF ELISA kit. The loading percentage of VEGF was calculated with the loading percentage formula.
Results: It was shown that the physical properties of the mebranes with 6:4 composition shows better characters. However, the result of statistical analysis showed significant different in the loading percentage of VEGF between the 7:3 composition in GDCPD, GCHA and GCCO in which the average loading percentage in 7:3 composition was found to be higher than in 6:4 composition.
Conclusion: It was concluded that in 7:3 composition of GDCPD, GCHA and GCCO loading percentage of VEGF is found to be higher, although physical properties of the construct is found to be better in 6:4.
Mauro Alini graduated in Chemistry from the University of Lausanne (Switzerland) in 1983. Since then he has been involved in connective tissue research, starting form his Ph.D. research work, done at the Laboratory of Cellular Pathology in Locarno (Switzerland), which focused on the isolation and characterization of proteoglycans extracted from both normal human mammary gland and carcinomas thereof. In September 1988, he joined the Joint Diseases Laboratory (under Dr. A. R. Poole’s direction) at the Shriners Hospital in Montreal to work on quantitative and qualitative changes in extracellular matrix proteins (particularly proteoglycans and collagens) of the growth plate tissue before and at the time of cartilage matrix calcification during endochondral bone formation. In January 1995, he was appointed as an Assistant Professor at the Division of Orthopaedic Surgery of the McGill University (Chair Prof. M. Aebi) and head of the Biochemistry Unit of the Orthopaedic Research Laboratory, working to develop new biological approaches to treating intervertebral disc damage. Since July 2000, he is in charge of the Musculoskeletal Regeneration Program at the AO Research Institute (Davos, Switzerland), focusing on cartilage, bone and intervertebral disc tissue engineering. Since September 2009 is also the Vice-Director of the same Research Institute. He received the Marshall R. Urist Award in 2015 from the Orthopaedic Research Society (USA).
Cell therapy approaches, combining injectable materials and cells or growth factors/chemokines, represent a minimally invasive treatment for degenerated intervertebral disc (IVD). Recently, we have developed a hydrogel platform based on hyaluronan backbone. These include thermoreversible hydrogel and injectable tyramine modified hyaluronic acid (HA-Tyr). Thermoreversible hydrogel provides easy injectability (low viscosity at room temperature) together with a mild gelling mechanism (physical cross-linking above 32°C), while tyramine modified hyaluronan viscoelastic properties, in vitro swelling and enzymatic digestion profiles of the crosslinked hydrogels can be precisely tuned via the degree of substituted Tyr on hyaluronan.
Recent studies have shown that human MSCs have the capability to survive within the disc. Indeed, pilot human studies have also been started. It is, however, not yet clear whether MSCs directly or indirectly contribute to the healing process. Indirectly, MSC could also release biological factors, which will be able to stimulate the resident disc cells or activate the potential progenitor cells present within the IVD. Therefore, stem cell homing into damaged tissues may be seen as a promising therapeutic method for tissue regeneration. Consequently, we have investigated potential of these hyaluronan-based hydrogels as a carrier for chemokines, to induce stem cell homing within the degenerated IVD. We will present our recent ex vivo and in vivo results on the delivery of SDF-1 and CCL5 using the above hydrogels in bovine and ovine intervertebral discs.
(a) Professional Preparation University of Cairo, Cairo, Egypt Chemistry B.Sc. 1982 University of Ain Shams, Cairo, Egypt Chemistry M.Sc. 1988 University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA Bioengineering M.SE. 1993 University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA Bioengineering Ph.D. 1995
(b) Appointments Associate Professor Dept. Mechanical Engineering & Eng. Science UNC Charlotte 2006-Present Assistant Professor Center for Biomedical Engineering U Kentucky 2002-2006 Visiting Scholar Department of Bioengineering U PENN 2000-2002 Assistant Professor National Research Center Cairo Egypt 1997-2000 Research Scientist Desmos Inc., San Diego, CA 1995-1997
(c) Selected Publications 1. Aniket, Robert Reid, Benika Hall, Ian Marriott and Ahmed El-Ghannam, “The synergistic relationship between surface roughness and chemistry of bioactive ceramic coating on early osteoblast responses”, J Biomed Mater Res A;103(6):1961-73 (2015). 2. Travis K. Mann-Gow, Jerry Blaivas, Benjamin J. King, Ahmed El-Ghannam, Christine Knabe, Michael K. Lam, Cameron S. Sikavi, Ole M. Dall, Mark K. Plante, Jan Krhut, Peter Zvara, “A Rat Animal Model for Preclinical Testing of Urethral Bulking Agents”, Int J Urol.;22(4):416-20 (2015). 3. Rania Abd ElAziz, Naguiba Mahmoud, Samia Soliman and Samir R. Nouh, Larry Cunningham, Ahmed El-Ghannam, Acceleration of Alveolar Ridge Augmentation Using a Low Dose of rhBMP2 Loaded on a Resorbable Bioactive Ceramic, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 73(12):2257-72 (2015). 4. Pacheco H, Vedantham K, Aniket, Young A, Marriott I, El-Ghannam A., “Tissue engineering scaffold for sequential release of vancomycin and rh-BMP2 to treat bone infections”. J Biomed Mater Res A. published on line (2014). 5. Swet J H., Pacheco H., David A. Iannitti D., El-Ghanam A., McKillop I H. A Silica-Calcium-Phosphate Nanocomposite (SCPC) Drug Delivery System for Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC): In Vivo Study. J Biomed Mater Res Part B, Vol 102, 1, 190–202 (2014). 6. Ahmed El-Ghannam, Larry Cunningham, Dean White, Amanda Hart, “Mechanical Properties And Cytotoxicity Of A Resorbable Bioactive Implant Prepared By Rapid Prototyping Technique” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research-Part A, Volume 101, 10, 2851–2861 (2013). 7. Amie Sparnell, Aniket and Ahmed El-Ghannam, “Machining of a Bioactive Nanocomposite Orthopedic Fixation Device,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research- Part B, Applied Biomaterials; 100B, 6, 1545–1555, (2012) 8. Kumar Vedantham, Jacob H. Swet, McKillop H. Iain, Ahmed El-Ghannam. “A bioresorbable controlled release drug delivery system to treat liver cancer,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research-Part A, 100A: 432–440, (2012). 9. Ahmed El-Ghannam and Kiarash Jahed, “Resorbable bioactive ceramic for treatment of bone infection”, Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 94, 1, 308-316 (2010). 10. El-Ghannam Ahmed, Malkawi Ahmed, Kia Jahed, Wyan Heather, Allen Lauren D., Dréau Didier “A novel anticancer drug delivery system to treat breast tumors”, Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, 21, 2701-2710 (2010).
Patents: 1. El-Ghannam A., Ceramic Coating and Applications Thereof, US61/857,858 (2013). 2. Hernando Pacheco, Irina Nesmelova, Didier Dreau and Ahmed El-Ghannam, “Enhanced drug delivery system using bioactive ceramics” UNCC IR# 2013-027, patent application number 61/810,044, April (2014). 3. El-Ghannam A., “Injectable bioceramic composite for drug delivery applications” patent application number US 62/021,363 and 07/07/(2014). 4. Ahmed El-Ghannam, Peter Zvara, Christine Knabe, Jan Krhut “Application of Silica-Calcium Phosphate Bioceramic Particles as a Urethral Bulking Agent” patent application number US 62/141432 (2015).
(c) Synergistic Activities 1. President of the International Society for Ceramics in Medicine (2015-2016) 2. Chair, World Biomaterials Congress, New Frontier Sessions: Bioceramics inducing osteogenesis, angiogenesis and immunomodulation, Ontario, Canada (2016) . 3. Associate Editor of the Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A. The official Journal of the American Society of Biomaterials, Japanese Society for Biomaterials, Korean Society for Biomaterial and the Australian Society for Biomaterials.(2007-present) 4. Reviewer for the NIH “Biomaterials and Bio interfaces” study section (2014) 5. Program Committee member, Society for Biomaterials (2013-present) 6. Education Committee member, Society for Biomaterials (2014-2015) 7. Invited Speaker, The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Workshop on Bone Graft, Spring ASTM meeting in St. Louis, May 18-23, “Calcium Phosphate nano-Composite (SCPC): Key to Successful Bone Tissue Engineering, (2010). 8. Committee member, Summer Research Experience for Undergraduate SREU program at UNC Charlotte (2010-present).
Currently Advising: Rahul Upadhyay (MS), Thesis title: The effect of porosity on the drug release rate from a vancomycin-loaded cristobalite disks: a computational and experimental study. James Haig (MS), Thesis title, injectable bioceramic drug delivery system.
Advanced Bioceramic for Regenerative Medicine and Disease Treatment
Silica-calcium-phosphate composite (SCPC) is resorbable bioactive medical device that recently has been approved by the FDA as a bone graft. The ability of SCPC to restore the continuity of cortical bone in femoral defects in rabbits was evaluated and compared to that of 45S5 bioglass. The structure design of SCPC facilitates complete resorbability and bone regeneration. Moreover, when SCPC was synthesized by 3D printing, loaded with or without rhBMP2 and grafted in critical size bone defects in rabbit ulna or in dog mandibular saddle-type defects, it enhanced rapid bone regeneration. The synergistic stimulation of bone cell function by rhBMP2 and the dissolution products of SCPC facilitated the resorption of the graft material. Other studies have shown the ability of SCPC to bind and release several therapeutics including antibiotics, antimicrobial peptides, anticancer drugs, and growth factors. The resorbability and antibiotic release kinetics from SCPC were superior to that of poly-methyl-methacrylate bone cement. Animal studies have shown that SCPC loaded with Vancomycin has successfully regenerated bone in critical size bone defect in the calvaria of rabbit. This indicate that drug incorporation in the SCPC bioceramic does not affect the bone bioactivity property of the material.
Associate professor Dr. Marius Niculescu, MD, PhD is a consultant Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgeon and Head of the Orthopaedics and Traumatology I Department of the Colentina Clinical Hospital. He received his PhD degree in 2006 – the topic of his thesis was focused on unicompartmental knee replacement. Since 2009 he is Associate Professor of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Paediatric Orthopaedics and Traumatology, and Orthopaedic and Trauma Nursing at the Titu Maiorescu University, Faculty of Medicine. His clinical work involves all aspects of orthopaedic and trauma surgery, with a special interest in large joint arthroplasty, especially hip and knee replacement. He has led and participated in many research projects, both national and international, as well as clinical studies. Dr. Niculescu is a member of 10 scientific societies, including SOROT, SICOT, and EFORT. He has also been engaged in numerous managerial activities at the Titu Maiorescu University, and has coordinated National Health Care programs at the Colentina Clinical Hospital. An active participant to congresses, conferences and courses in his speciality, he was also a member of the organising committee/ section chairman of many national scientific events. He has authored and co-authored over 100 publications, including books and peer-reviewed articles, and is a reviewer and associate editor of specialty journals in Orthopaedics and Traumatology and biomaterials. His current research interests are in hip resurfacing and biomaterials engineering for joint replacement.
Current trends and controversial issues in hip prosthesis type metal-metal
The aim of this presentation is to present the literature review, together with actual clinical and laboratory results of metal-on-metal resurfacing hip arthroplasties by comparing with other implants. An important number of clinical cases were operated in our orthopedic departmentin the last years. We found that an important cause of failure is the fracture of the femoral neck. The chromium and cobalt levels of resurfacing hip arthroplasty and large-diameter head total hip arthroplasty (THA) are higher than those of a conventional metal-on-polyethylene total hip arthroplasty. Also, different problems related to the bone quality of the patient or cementation aspects were revealed as potential cause for failure. Failed prosthesis was analyzed using different microscopic techniques. Some results of this investigation will be presented in conjunction with clinical details about patient and surgical technique. The findings of this study are novel and quite controversial with that of the previously published literature.
Prof.Dr. Rodica-Mariana Ion
Full Professor of Nanomaterials, Ph.D. Supervisor at Valahia University, Targoviste and Senior Scientist at ICECHIM – Bucharest, Head of Nanomedicine Research Group. 34 years experience in analytical investigations, photochemistry (laboratory / clinical photodynamic therapy of cancer with lasers, lamps and LED sources), regulatory aspects of chemicals and nanomaterials (chemical safety and environmental protection), analysis of soils, water and depollution methods. Evaluator/reviewer for UE projects (Marie Curie). Director of the Centre for Nanomaterials for micromechanical systems from 2010. Is internationally known for her work on functional and bioactive compounds, characterisation of engineered surfaces through physical, chemical and biological modifications, as well as via the use of advanced micro/nanofabrication technologies to create biocompatible and biofunctional materials for application in nanomedicine and regenerative medicine; extensive experience in materials science, analytical techniques (XRD, EDXRF, ICP-AES, FTIR, Raman, UV-Vis, thermal analysis, chromatography, etc). Project manager, author of more than 160 peer-reviewed papers in her field, over 75 invited lectures, 270 conference communications, 200 non-ISI published papers, 6 books and 14 book chapters, 1300 citations, HIRSCH index: 20 (SCHOLAR GOOGLE); 16 (SCOPUS), 14 (ISI WEB OF KNOWLEDGE). Good background on international projects (FP6 – DEVELONUTRI Project, 2007-2010; Management Committee of EU Actions: COST D8 (2001), D18 (2001-2006), D20 (2004-2007) and COST D39(2006-2011), Principal Coordinator at WG 0012/02 of COST D20, Expert of INTAS Program) and in national project as well. 23 national projects and 10 international projects. She received 57 national and international awards. 15 national patents; 1 european patent EPO.
Regenerative medicine in dermatology Biomaterials, medical devices and drugs release
The “regenerative medicine” is a new field in biomedical research for developing some innovative therapies for replaces, restore and regenerate damaged or diseased cells, tissues and organs. Due to its accessibility, skin is an attractive model organ for regenerative medicine with potential relevance in dermatology for skin reconstitution in patients suffering from chronic wounds and burns. In this context, the synthetic polymeric materials have been widely used in drug delivery systems such as implants or transdermal drug delivery systems, due to their biocompatibility, low price and low toxicity. Except silicone, which is one of the most common materials used in medical devices, there are many other materials (silicone, alcohol polyvinylalcohol (PVA), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), polyacrylic acid (APA), hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), bentonite or collagen) with the same applications [1,2].
The aim of this paper is to present materials and practical realization of medical devices as dermal patch or dressing type, from the above materials, which release the active ingredients (local anesthetic (analgesic) drugs such as lidocaine, or a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs – diclofenac or caffeic acid, and also some anti-venous ulcer drugs (hesperidine, hesperetine, diosmine) with controlled releasing status [3,4]. Various dressings are prepared according to each stage of healing and of the wound type. Some practical experiments on controlled release of the active principles and in vitro tests, made in the laboratory in conditions similar to biological environment, are shown and discussed.
Acknowledgements: This paper has been prepared with the financial support of the project PN II 185/2014.
1. Petrisor, G., Ion, R.M., Brachais, C.H., Couvercelle, J.-P., Chambin, O., Designing medical devices based on silicon polymeric material with controlled release of local anesthetics (2012) Journal of Macromolecular Science, Part A: Pure and Applied Chemistry, 49 (5), pp. 439-444.
2. Petrisor, G., Ion, R.M., Brachais, C.-H., Boni, G., Plasseraud, L., Couvercelle, J.-P., Chambin, O., In vitro release of local anaesthetic and anti-inflammatory drugs from crosslinked collagen based device, (2012) Journal of Macromolecular Science, Part A: Pure and Applied Chemistry, 49 (9), pp. 699-705.
3. RM Ion, IR Suica-Bunghez, Oxidative Stress-Based Photodynamic Therapy with Synthetic Sensitizers and/or Natural Antioxidants, Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology » “Basic Principles and Clinical Significance of Oxidative Stress”, book edited by Sivakumar Joghi Thatha Gowder, ISBN 978-953-51-2200-5, Published: November 11, 2015
4. R.M. Ion, The use of phthalocyanines and related complexes in photodynamic therapy, in: Photosensitizers in Medicine, Environment, and Security, Springer, Nyokong, Tebello; Ahsen, Vefa (Eds.), 1st Edition., 2011, 250 pp, ISBN: 978-90-481-3870-8
Professor Liliana Verestiuc is a professor of biomaterials at Faculty of Medical Bioengineering and coordinator of the Center of Training and Research in Tissue Engineering, Artificial Organs and Regenerative Medicine, from University of Medicine and Pharmacy ‘Grigore T.Popa’ Iasi. She graduated ‘Gh. Asachi’ Technical University of Iasi and she obtained a PhD in Materials Science in 2002 (topic: polymeric biomaterials). She was a visiting researcher or academic researcher in several laboratories from EU, where she was trained on biomaterials, surface analysis and cells-biomaterials interactions. Her research interest is focused on formulation and characterization of scaffolds for tissue engineering, polymeric formulations (hidrogels, micro and nanoparticles) for biomedical applications, bioconjugates based on polymers (synthetic, polysaccharides and proteins), functionalization of proteins and polysaccharides, in vitro and in vivo drug release studies, in vitro and in vivo tests on materials biocompatibility. Her scientific activity comprises: books and chapters of books (7); papers in scientific journals (87); papers in the proceedings of international or national conferences (49); patents (12); participating in international or national research projects (37); member of the scientific committee of different meetings (22); reviewer for international ISI journals and conferences (29); prizes at international conferences (4); awards at international exhibitions for patents (8).
Dr. Madalina Georgiana Albu, 36 years old, PhD in Chemistry, has been working for INCDTP – Leather and Footwear Research Institute since February 2001 and currently leads the Collagen Department. Dr.Albu have more than 13 years’ experience in the field of preparation and characterization of collagen biomaterials. Author/coauthor of 2 books, author/coauthor of 4 book chapters (3 international and one in Romanian Academy Publishing House), 10 patent applications (one registered at Turkish Patent Institute), 49 ISI articles and 39 non-ISI, 144 participations in national / international conferences/symposia/congresses, 66 participations in national / international research projects (in which 10 national and 7 international as coordinator), h index is 8. Other: many gold medals at The World Exhibition of Invention, Research and Industrial Innovation for patent applications, Brussels, 2012 and 2013; Prix de l’AGEPI pour ses mérites distinguér à la 62ème édition du Salon International des Inventions « Brussels INNOVA – 2013 ROUMANIE pour l’invention : « Conducteurs nerveux de collagene et leur processus d’obtention », Brussels, 2013 ; Innovation Award from ORIGITEA®, Institute of Health and Beauty by Doctor Mukhinaor for Patent application „Antimicrobial collagen wound dressing”, Brussels, 2013; implementation of Quality Management Systems ISO 9001:2008 and ISO 13485:2012 and obtaining EC 1868 certificates for 2 collagen wound dressings and notification of 4 cosmetic products at Cosmetic Products Notification Portal (CPNP). Also, she is Member of Directors Board of the Romanian Society of Biomaterials, Secretary of Scientific Committee of INCDTP; Expert evaluator at Ministry of Health in Romania.
Dr. Daniela Ivanov is research scientist at “Petru Poni” Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry of Romanian Academy, Iasi, Romania; chemist engineer with interdisciplinary background – physical/organic chemistry, polymers and polymeric materials design and characterisation, biomedical engineering – achieved BSc and PhD in Chemistry from “Gh. Asachi” Technical University, Iasi, and MScRes in Medical Bioengineering – Tissue Engineering from “Gr.T.Popa” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Iasi. Research interests include bio/polymers and polymeric nano/biomaterials, biomimetic scaffolds and nano/biocomposites, and their structure – biocompatibility relationship for medical applications, release of bioactive agents and tissue engineering. Her particular interest in hyaluronic acid was developed as Assistant Professor at University of Illinois at Chicago (2008-2010), during researches on facial contouring dermal fillers in collaboration with Kythera Biopharmaceuticals Inc. CA and Department of Biomedical Engineering, John Hopkins University, MD. Dr. Ivanov’s professional and scientific contribution include chapters/books; papers in peer-reviewed journals; research projects grants; conferences; membership in scientific societies.
Biodegradable bone plates – fixation or future direction?
A fractured bone can regenerate itself if the resulted fragments are held together in place. Internal fracture fixation can be realized by means of plates, screws, wires, nails, or pins, bone plates being the most frequently utilized. Initially, inorganic metallic nondegradable biomaterials have been used for orthopedic trauma fixation, but their can give bone atrophy or premature failure. Moreover, growth restrictions for bone growth in younger patients require a second surgery to remove the implant.
Consequently, over the last few decades biodegradable biomaterials have been considered to replace metallic implants, including biodegradable natural and synthetic polymer materials, to manufacture fully resorbable plates and screws. Unfortunately, they only have limited application due to their poor mechanical properties, being use in the fixation of fractured facial bones and pediatric orthopedics.
To overcome these limitations, bioactive composites with enhanced properties have been developed by reinforcing the biodegradable polymer biomaterials with bioresorbable and bioactive bioceramics, bioglass fibers, etc. The final mechanical properties and rate of degradation can be engineered by tuning chemical composition, characteristics of the fillers, bonding at interphase by filler modification with coupling agents, processing, etc. Particularly, incorporation of magnesium into the biodegradable polymer matrix may yield desired mechanical properties.[1,2]
Definitely bioabsorbable materials represent the fastest growing segment of the internal fixation market, that are gaining popularity as future non-metallic substitutes. Various orthopedic trauma fixation devices companies are increasing their interest on manufacturing of bioabsorbable internal fixators, market for bioabsorbable fixators being expected to grow at a CAGR (compound annual growth rate) of about 8.4% during 2014 – 2020.
 J.V. Rau, I. Antoniac, M. Fosca, A. De Bonis, A.I. Blajan, C. Cotrut, V. Graziani, M. Curcio, A. Cricenti, M. Niculescu, M. Ortenzi, R. Teghil. Glass-ceramic coated Mg-Ca alloys for biomedical implant applications. Materials Science and Engineering: C, 64 (2016) 362–369.
 J. V. Rau, I. Antoniac, G. Cama, V. S. Komlev, A. Ravaglioli. Bioactive Materials for Bone Tissue Engineering. BioMed Research International, Vol 2016 (2016), Article ID 3741428.
 Transparency Market Research “Orthopedic Trauma Fixation Devices Market – Global Forecast, Market Share, Size, Growth and Industry Analysis 2014 – 2020” (http://www.transparencymarketresearch.com/orthopedic-trauma-fixation-device-market.html)
Dr Rodica MARINESCU is a physician doctor, in the specialty of Orthopedics and Traumatology, working in Colentina Clinical Hospital, Bucharest, with an active involvement in the education of orthopedic residents who did internship in our clinic, participating at both current surgical activities as well as at various clinical conferences (works diploma, licenses). Since 2001, when arthroscopic surgery was introduced in the preparation of orthopedic surgeons, she was among the first in the country with this qualification and have attended many courses as a lecturer. The research carried out over more than five years addresses areas of large current interest: biomaterials, joint surgery, and minimally invasive surgery. The scientific activity in the orthopedic clinic resulted in more than 100 papers in international journal and conference proceedings, member of scientific societies like (ESSKA-European Society for Surgery of the Knee, ISAK-International Society of Arthroscopy Surgery). Relevant scientific contributions made as a result of scientific and research activity are related to the introduction of the definition and implementation of protocols for the first time accurate diagnosis and treatment in a series of knee joint disorders (being co-opted and the National Health Ministry dealing with the development of these regulations). She was awarded as the first author in Romania that performed arthroscopic meniscal sutures, first cruciate ligament reconstructions with allograft, the first endoscopy for calcaneal pathology.
Dr. Marioara Moldovan is senior scientist, at “Raluca Ripan” Chemistry Research Institute, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, and leader Department of Composite Polymers. Research activities include the study and development of technologies for obtaining dimethacrylic monomers/oligomers with low polymerization shrinkage, polyalkenoic acids, micro and nanofiller, composite and nanocomposit materials and adhesives used in dentistry: a) dental composites used for restoration; b) sealants used for the prophylaxis of caries with children; sealants used in endodontic; c) synthesis and characterization inorganic materials e.g., micro-and nanocrystalline powders, bioglasses, as fillers for polymeric composites; d) synthesis of nanofillers (hydroxyapatite with Zn, Ag, Ti, Zr, Si, mixed Al-Zr, Si-Zr) by sol-gel method and stabilization of nanoparticles; e) surface treatments of inorganic particles with coupling agent, to make them compatible with the organic matrix of the composites; f) materials with biocompatible properties for the dental implants g) composites able to form thin films with adhesive properties cured at UV-radiation or visible light-cured, respectively. The focus area of her studies has been on research and development materials used in dentistry. Her experience in critiquing previous research, empirical evidence, patents and articles demonstrates not only her understanding of development dental materials, but also her desire to be involved in the latest research in this and other areas.
Professor Teodor Traistaru is the Head of Department of Fixed Prosthodontics and Occlusology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Medicine and Pharmacy Carol Davila Bucharest. Team spirit, correctness, selflessness and balanced approach are some standards that professor Teodor Traistaru always tried to maintain in relation to the other people and colleagues. He was president of UNAS (National Union of Stomatological Associations) in 2 periods 2000-2002 and 2002-2004, vicepresident of UNAS (2010-2011) and president (from 2011) of Romanian Society of Prosthodontics and Maxillo-Facial Prosthetics, editor in chief of Romanian Journal of Dental Medicine, member of the editorial boards for other journals (Journal of Stomatology; Cosmetic Dentistry – Romanian edition). As General Manager and Secretary of State in Ministry of Health, he coordinated with good results two major fields of interest: PHARE project & World Bank financed project (150 million $) and direct negotiations regarding Romanian integration into EU, in all aspects concerning Ministry of Health. He gives a special interest in the field of prosthodontics (fixed, removable and complete), occlusion and temporomandibular disorders. In the research area, some subjects treated were: new methods of treatment in edentulous patients like overdentures, new alloys used in porcelain-fused-to metal technique, the relation between the type of dental materials (impression materials, porcelain, dental alloys) and biofilms, the prevalence of the signs and symptoms of the temporomandibular disorders in the romanian teenagers group, the mandibular movements in the complete denture clinical cases, the psychometric evaluation of subjects with myoarticular pain-disfunction syndrome, the special features of implant borne prosthetics treatment, the impact of occlusal and biomecanical aspects in implanto-prosthetic rehabilitation, the study of mandibular movements in the case of subjects with different types of malocclusion and disfunction.
Prosthetic Dental Therapy for Certain Types of Obstuctive Sleep Apnea Sydrome in Adults
The term “apnea” defines the situation when a temporary, voluntary or involuntary breathing pause occurs (“a” = without; “pnein” = to breathe; from Greek). Sleep apnea (breathing pause during sleep) is increasingly considered to be an important etiological factor in morbidity and, quite often, in mortality.
The following types of apnea are described, based on the pathogenic mechanisms, in adults: 1. central; 2. obstructive; 3. mixed. The sleep apnea is mainly diagnosed based on data collected during sleep; while the patient is being monitored various records (grouped under the term of “polysomnography”) are made, reflecting the activity of certain organs and systems (EEG, EKG, EOG, EMG) or certain parameters are being supervised/checked: respiratory rhythm, pulse, oximetry, audio-video recordings: bruxism, limb movements, speaking etc.
In relation to the severity of the apnea, the obstructive sleep apnea syndromes (OSA) are classified in severe, moderate and mild categories. This classification corresponds to OSA management; thus, CPAP (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure) therapy is recommended for severe forms while for moderate or mild forms intra-oral appliances (splints) can be used (Oral Appliances Therapy/OAT).
Obstructive sleep apnea affects the patient’s state not only during sleep, but also in the daytime; for instance, daytime sleepiness, decreased capacity of concentration or impaired attention are frequent causes for work-related and driving accidents. In this context, the current concerns in the domain of OSA detection and treatment are fully justified as efforts are for reducing the complications that can be generated by the frequently used therapies, respectively CPAP and OAT, are intensified.
The oral appliances (splints) therapy used in obstructive sleep apnea syndromes aims to open the airways by pushing the mandible-tongue complex in a protrusive and lower position. This is achieved in two ways: by using mandibular advancement devices (MAD) or mandibular advancement splints (MAS), or by retaining the tongue in a protrusive position. Although certain prefabricated devices (splints) are frequently used by the “boil and bite” technique, specialists consider that the personalized manufacture of such appliances is the most appropriate method for highly improved treatment results.
The conflict between using oral appliances in OSA (respectively maintaining the mandible-tongue complex in a protrusive position during sleep – 5-6 hours per night) and preserving the natural, normal functions of muscles and temporo – mandibular joint can only be accepted following a thorough analysis of the OSA patient’s condition.
The obvious benefits of using oral appliances therapy (splint therapy) in OSA treatment and the constant possibility of reducing the risks of possible complications place the dentist in a privileged position within the multi-disciplinary team involved in OSA patients’ management.
Meda-Lavinia Negruţiu (44 years old) is professor at the “Victor Babeş” University of Medicine and Pharmacy Timişoara, Faculty of Dentistry, Prostheses Technology and Dental Materials Department. Her research activities and competences are in the fields of dental materials and prostheses technology, alternative technologies in prosthodontics; imagistic investigations in dentistry – optical coherence tomography, structural adhesives for optical bonding; articulators; polymer injection technology; numeric simulation studies; soldering and welding technologies (plasma, laser); unconventional technologies of investigation, analysis, prognosis in dentistry. She was part of the research group that developed the first Time Domain Optical Coherence Tomography and the first Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Systems dedicated to dentistry in the east of Europe. She has 491 scientific works – 203 of them published (91 listed on the ISI Web of Science) and 288 oral communications at meetings in Romania and abroad. She is an author and coauthor at 21 monographies and 6 courses, co-author of one accorded (RO 121317 B1 /29.05.2009) and three in work OSIM patents. She is member in the research team of 11 grants – by 3 of them as project manager and 1 partner project responsible. She is member in the Management Comitee, representing Romania, of the FP7 COST Action MP 1005. According to Web of Science, the Hirsch index is 6. Sum of times cited articles, without self-citations is 45 and the number of Citing Articles without self-citations is 38. The address of the researcherid.com profile is: http://www.researcherid.com/rid/B-6974-2008. She is Visiting Senior Lecturer in the School of Physical Sciences, University of Kent, Canterbury, UK. She is member of the Romanian Society of Biomaterials, West Romania Multidisciplinary Research Association, Romanian Society of Lasers in Dentistry, Romanian Society of Esthetic Dentistry, SPIE, OSA.
Horia Manolea is Associate Professor at Department of Dental Materials, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Craiova, Romania. He graduated the Faculty of Dentistry in 2001, holds a PhD in Medicine and a Master degree in implant supported prosthesis. Research interests include resin restorative materials research, implant supported prosthesis technologies, development of ceramic and metal-ceramic technology, dental and periodontal structures morphology study. His professional and scientific activity comprises: handbooks/textbooks (5), papers published in scientific journals (27), papers published in the proceedings of international or national conferences (85), participating in different international or national research projects, member of the scientific and organizing committee of different meetings.
Cosmin Sinescu (40 years old) is full professor at the Victor Babeş” University of Medicine and Pharmacy Timişoara, Faculty of Dentistry, Prostheses Technology and Dental Materials Department. The Habilitation Thesis (2015) was focused on new methods of diagnostic and forecast in dentistry. His main research interests and competences include invasive and noninvasive, destructive and nondestructive methods of investigations in dentistry, dental materials, bioengineering, biocompatibility, optoelectronics, imagistic investigations in dentistry – optical coherence tomography, management of scientific research projects in medicine and pharmacy; principles and applications of optical coherence tomography; modern optical testing – field guide to interferometric optical testing; structural adhesives for optical bonding; principles of diffraction, interferometry, holography and difractive optical elements, synchrotron investigation. He was part of the research group that developed the first Time Domain Optical Coherence Tomography and the first Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Systems dedicated to dentistry in the east of Europe. Since 2005 he is a Visiting Senior Research Fellow in the Applied Optics Group at the University of Kent at Canterbury, UK. He is member in the research team of 14 grants – by 4 of them as project manager. He published many papers in ISI refereed journals and conference proceedings. The address of the researcherid.com profile is: http://www.researcherid.com/rid/G-1528-2011. He is a member of SRLS, SSB, SRB, IEEE, OSA and SPIE.
Alexandru-Vlad CIUREA, Prof. HC., M.D., PhD., MSc. Professor of neurosurgery, Senior neurosurgeon, Founder of the National Center for Excellency in Neurosurgery, Honorary President of the Romanian Society of Neurosurgery, Vice-President of the WFNS Nomminating Committee. Current Status: Head of Neurosurgery and Scientific Director, “Sanador Medical Center” Hospital, Bucharest; Professor of Neurosurgery, “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest (1997-…); Head & Chairman Neurosurgical Clinic 1, “Bagdasar-Arseni” Hospital, Bucharest (1997-2013) Professional Affiliations: Journal Neurosurgery (USA), International Advisory Board (2014); Journal World Neurosurgery (USA), Senior Advisors Pannel; Official Invited Lecturer, WFNS Continuous Medical Belem, Para, Brazil; Reelected Vicepresident of Euroacademia Multidisciplinaria Neurotraumatologica (December, Ulm, Germania); Member of Nominating Committee WFNS (Seoul, Korea); Official Member of Education Committee WFNS (Seoul, Korea); Honorary member of the Italian Society for Neurosurgery (Palermo, Italy); Vicepresident of Euroacademia Multidisciplinaria Neurotraumatologica ; Vicepresident Romanian Medical Association; Honorary member of the Bulgarian Society for Neurosurgery; Member of the Romanian Academy of Medical Sciences; Chairman WFNS Nominating Committee (Boston, USA); Vice-President Academia Multidisciplinaria Neurotraumatologica (Cluj-Napoca, Romania); International Member of the Brazilian Academy of Neurosurgery; Member of the Romanian Academy of Scientists; Vice-President ”at large” of the World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies, Morocco; President, The Society of Neuro-Oncology, Romania Publications: Main author of 33 monographs in neurosurgery, neurology, healthcare management and food research; Author to 40 ISI-indexed papers Honours, awards and distinctions: Nominated in the International Advisory Board of Neurosurgery (USA); Visiting Professor – International Neuroscience Institute – Hannover, Germany; Honorary Member of the Italian Society of Neurosurgery; Award of Excellence “Medica Academica” for Lifetime Achievement; Excellency Diploma of the Romanian Medical Association for the “Textbook of Neurosurgery” treatise, vol I and II; Excellency Diploma “Neurovasc” awarded at the International Congress of Cerebrovascular Surgery, Mumbai, India; Honorary Diploma of the Society for the Study of Neuroprotection and Neurorehabilitation (SSNN); Awarded prize for “Innovation in medical teaching” at the National “Healthcare Gala”; Diploma et charta aureus (full member) of the Romanian Academy of Scientists; Diploma of Excellency for Scientific Activity and Publishing in the Bucharest University of Medicine and Pharmacy, granted by the Journal of Medicine and Life, Bucharest; “New ideas regarding the presence of hidden anatomy in Michelangelo’s paintings”, registered with State Office for Inventions an Trademarks, Romania; Inventor’s license for “the unishunt drainage system”, single tube neurosurgical drainage system; an invention widely used in the World for the treatment of hydrocephalus; The National Order for Faithful Service of Romania with the rank of Commodore; a distinction awarded by the President of Romania. 4 Titles of Doctor Honoris Causa(Dunarea de Jos University, School of Medicine, Galați, Romania; N. Testemițanu University School of Medicine, Chisinau, Rep. of Moldova; Petre Andrei University, Iași, Romania; University of Oradea, School of Medicine, Oradea, Romania).
Monica Mihaela Cirstoiu
MD PhD Monica Mihaela Cirstoiu She graduated from the Faculty of General Medicine of the “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy in 1999. In 2006, she asserted the Ph. D. thesis, entitled “Menstrual Disorders at puberty and adolescence”, at the University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Carol Davila” in Bucharest. In 2015 she received the habilitation title at the the same university. Since 2016 she is a full Professor in Obstetrics and Gynecology in “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy and the Head of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of University Emergency Hospital in Bucharest. Her research activity is evidenced by the publication of: 52 articles published in journals indexed by ISI Web of Science, 148 articles published in journals indexed in IDB, 27 research grants, 123 abstracts published in journals indexed by ISI Web of Science and 347 of other scientific contributions. In terms of editorial activity, she coordinated three prestigious medical treaties, she is author of a monography, coordinator of two translated international treaties and co-author of elven textbooks. She is the President of the Romanian Association for Study of Pain, Vice-president of The Romanian Society of Uro-Gynecology and an active member of numerous medical societies.
Mariana Braic – Romanian physicist and scientist working on thin film deposition and characterization for applications ranging from biomaterials to EUV optics I have been born in Focsani city in Romania, known as the “Milcov town”, where Stephan the Great, prince of Moldavia principality, located in 1482 the frontier between Moldova and Valachia principalities. After the two principalities were united in 1859, the city of Foscani, divided by Milcov river between the two principalities, became the “Town of the Union” when Al. I. Cuza, the first ruler of the Romanian principalities, signed the unification edict of its two parts. The town is also a cultural center, known for its theater built between 1909 and 1913, by the donation of Major Gh. Pastia. Here I started to walk and at 8 months I moved to Iasi, the capital of Moldavia region, where I went to school, and later I started studying at the “Al. I. Cuza” University, founded in 1860. I went to the physics faculty, even if in school I also liked a lot French, History and Chemistry. Shortly after I discovered I would like more to study atomic and nuclear physics, so I moved to the University of Bucharest, where I finished my BSc and MSc studies and eventually the PhD thesis related to the physics of thin films deposition by PVD methods, plasma and films characterization … which needs some knowledge on atomic and nuclear physics. When I finished with BSc and MSc studies, I went by the state distribution of the alumni at Felix Electronic Computer Enterprise in Bucharest, in a research department dealing with electronic parts of the optoelectronic devices. It was not exactly what I was dreaming, so I moved to the Institute for Physics and Technology of Radiation Devices, now the National Institute for Laser, Plasma, and Radiation Physics. After 1992 I moved to the Institute of Optoelectronics and then to the National Institute for Optoelectronics … and here I am. Expertise • Functional coatings (metals, nitrides, carbides, oxides and oxynitrides) deposited by magnetron sputtering and cathodic arc techniques), especially for optics, optoelectronics, mechanical and tribological applications, but also with special properties, such as corrosion resistant and biomaterials. • Oxide thin films by electron gun evaporation technique, especially for optoelectronics applications and (again) for biomaterials. • Plasma spectroscopy (mass and emission) of magnetron sputtering and cathodic arc plasmas, during the thin film deposition. • Analysis and characterization of thin films using various spectroscopies (UV-Vis-NIR, Raman, Auger), X-ray diffraction, morphological, mechanical and tribological characterization. Reviewer for ISI journals: •Surface and Coating Technology; •This Solid Films; •Physica Status Solidi; •Applied Surface Science; •Reviews on Advanced Materials Science; • Solid State Sciences; • Chemical Vapour Deposition; •Vacuum; • Photochemistry and Photobiology A- Chemistry. Guest Editor: Thin Solid Films (2010-2011, 2014-2015), Surface and Coating Technology (2016) Organizer: “Carbon -or nitrogen-containing nanostructured composite films” Symposia at E-MRS Spring Meetings in 2010 and 2014, and “Functional oxynitride films for sustainable development films” Symposium at E-MRS Spring Meeting in 2016.
Biomedical applications of TiZr-based metallic thin films
TiZr-based multi-component metallic films composed of 3 – 5 constituents with almost equal atomic concentrations were prepared by co-sputtering from pure Ti, Zr, Y, Cu, Hf and Si targets in argon atmosphere, as follows: TiZrCu, TiZrSi, TiZrCuSi, TiZrCuHf, TiZrY, TiZrYCuHf and TiZrYCuSi. X-ray diffraction was used to assess the phase composition of the deposited films. The films were characterized in terms of elemental composition (EDS), surface and in-depth morphology by AFM and HR-SEM, corrosion resistance in SBF solutions with pH = 7.2 at 37 0C, and antibacterial activity (Staphylococcus aureus MRSA, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615, Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028). Also, the in vitro tests carried out comprised determination of cell viability and cell attachment to the coated surface using the MTT test.
It was shown that the presence of Cu and Y determined a positive antibacterial activity, while the presence of Si increased the films biocompatibility.
MD, PhD (41 years old)
Profession: Obstetrician-Gynecologist, PhD in Medical Sciences Current Position: • Associated Professor at the “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest, Romania • Senior Physician in Obstetrics and Gynecology at the “St. Pantelimon” Clinical Hospital, Bucharest, Romania
I am an academic clinician, specialist in Obstetrics and Gynecology, with significant experience in obstetric and gynecology ultrasonography, urogynecology and minimally invasive surgery. I am an Associated Professor at the “Carol Davila” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucharest where beside my clinical activity I teach students, residents, organize courses for continuous medical education and develop clinical research activities. In the field of continuous medical education I organized in Romania 24 courses, conferences, workshops and congresses in Obstetrics and Gynecology specialty. In 2015 I graduated a master in Biophysics and Cellular Biotechnology with the thesis “Evaluation of immunohistochemistry profile of endometriosis implants”. As a specialist (2006) and subsequently, as a senior physician (2011) in Obstetrics and Gynecology, I gained significant experience in directly managing patients with high-risk pregnancies, treatment of pelvic floor disorders and treatment of benign and malign gynecologic pathology by minimally invasive surgery. I am a member of numerous prestigious medical associations, including The International Society of Ultrasonography in Obstetrics and Gynecology (ISUOG), The American Association of Gynecologic Laparoscopy (AAGL) and The European Society of Gynecologic Oncology (ESGO). I have authored 71 scientific papers and 134 congress presentations. I was a member of 5 medical grants and frequently involved in multicenter national and international clinical trials. Like a project manager I’m leading since 2014 a project studying endometriosis and infertility in which I evaluate different ultrasound methods used in the assessment of endometriosis implants. In 2015 I have initiated and activated as an expert in Obstetric and Gynecology ultrasound in the project “Improving the quality of life of children with cardio-vascular malformations and improving the medical knowledge of pediatric physicians and nurses“. In present I am President of the Romanian Society of Urogynecology and I have more than 12 years of experience regarding the use of synthetic and biologic meshes in reconstructive pelvic. In 2014 I led a project studying the use of biologic extracellular meshes in pelvic reconstructive surgery and I realized, for the first time in Romania, in 2014 a vaginal reconstruction using a biologic mesh. In the field of minimally invasive surgery, as a part of the team that introduced in Romania the conservative treatment of cervical cancer, I have done the first total laparoscopic trachelectomy in our country.
Biomechanical properties of biologic grafts used in pelvic reconstructive surgery
Aim: The purpose of this paper is to present the biomechanical properties of different generations of biologic meshes. Based on their biomechanical properties, we present our experinece with byologic meshes used in reconstructive pelvic surgery and in the treatment of complications of pelvic organ prolapse surgery.
Material and methods: We used bioprosthetic Surgisis material as interposition tissue element. It becomes a second generation biograft by acellular processing, keeping only the extracellular matrix’s characteristics that include collagen, glycosaminoglycans and glycoproteins which indicate the host’s cells to repopulate the tissue where it is implanted. Biologic meshes were used by us for perineal skin grafts in vulvar cancer, to create a neovagina in utero-vaginal malformation, to repair a relapsing recto-vaginal fistula and for vaginal reconstruction after vaginal erosion due to synthetic meshes used in the treatment of pelvic organ prolapse.
Results: In cases where the biologic meshes were used for vaginal reconstruction and as skin graft after surgery for vulvar cancer, the new vaginal mucosa and skin tissue were obtained after 2 months. In case of recurent recto-vaginal fistula we have an 8 months period of follow-up in which the fistula was curred without recurence. In cases were we used the biologic meshes for neovaginal reconstruction the final result was a functional vagina after 4 months postoperative. Surgisis allows the integration of the graft into a strong, vascularized tissue, similar to that in which it was implanted, without leaving foreign material in place, being gradually replaced by the host’s cells which remodel the deficient tissue.
Conclusions: Due to their biomechanical properties, using acellular biologic meshes is feasible in reconstructive perineal and vaginal surgery.